J Dent Res Dent Clin Dent Prospects. 2013;7(1): 1-7.
doi: 10.5681/joddd.2013.001
PMID: 23486733
PMCID: PMC3593199
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Fluoride Concentration of Drinking Waters and Prevalence of Fluorosis in Iran: A Systematic Review

Saber Azami-Aghdash, Morteza Ghojazadeh, Fatemeh Pournaghi Azar, Mohammad Naghavi-Behzad, Mostafa Mahmoudi, Zahra Jamali*


Background and aims. The aim of the present study was to systematically review fluoride concentration of drinking waters and prevalence of fluorosis in Iran through systematically evaluating results of studies conducted in this regard. Materials and methods. In this systematic review study, the required data was collected using keywords including drinking water fluoride, fluoride concentration, Fluorosis, dent*, Iran*, and their Persian equivalents through PubMed, ScienceDirect, IranMedex, SID, MEDLIB, and Magiran databases. Out of 617 articles, 29 articles were finally considered after excluding the remaining articles which were not related to the study objectives. Following precise studying and extrac-tion, the relevant data were summarized in extraction tables and analyzed manually. Excel 2007 software was used to draw diagrams. Results. 4434 samples of surface, ground, and tap water resources collected within 236 months during all seasons in 17 provinces of Iran were used in 29 articles determining fluoride concentrations of drinking water. Average fluoride concen-tration was estimated to be 0.43 ± 0.17 ppm with zero and 3.06 as minimal and maximal values. The least concentration was seen in tap water. Fluoride concentration of only three provinces was in accordance with the global standard. According to estimations, prevalence of fluorosis was 61% with only 1% as severe fluorosis. Conclusion. Despite lower than standard concentrations of fluoride in drinking water, a relatively high level of fluorosis was seen in Iran.
Keywords: Concentration, drinking waters, fluoride, fluorosis, prevalence
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Submitted: 25 Dec 2012
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