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J Dent Res Dent Clin Dent Prospects. 2020;14(1): 1-11.
doi: 10.34172/joddd.2020.001
PMID: 32454952
PMCID: PMC7235698
  Abstract View: 441
  PDF Download: 557

Basic Research

Original Article

Chemical modification of MTA and CEM cement to decrease setting time and improve bioactivity properties by adding alkaline salts

Faeze Jamali Zavare 1,2 ORCID logo, Hanieh Nojehdehian 2,3* ORCID logo, Maryam Moezizadeh 4, Mehdi Daneshpooy 5

1 Department of Operative Dentistry, School of Dentistry, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
2 Irainin Center for Endodontic Research, Research Institute of Dental Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
3 Department of Dental Biomaterials, School of Dentistry, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
4 Department of Operative Dentistry, Dental School, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
5 Department of Restorative Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran
*Corresponding Author; E-mail: hanieh.nojehdehyan@gmail.com

Abstract

Background. Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and Calcium-enriched Mixture (CEM) cement are used for pulp capping since they induce the formation of a dentinal bridge. Long setting time is a shortcoming of these types of cement. This study aimed to assess the effect of the incorporation of some alkaline salts to MTA and CEM cement on their setting time, ion release profile, pH, and surface morphology.

Methods. In this in vitro experimental study, 5% calcium chloride (CaCl2), calcium oxide (CaO), sodium fluoride (NaF), and calcium nitrate [Ca(NO3)2] were separately added to MTA and CEM cement. The primary and final setting times of the cements were measured using a Gillmore needle apparatus. The samples were immersed in simulated body fluid (SBF) for one, seven, and 14 days and subjected to x-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for phase identification and surface morphology assessment. The change in the pH of solutions was studied, and the calcium ion release profile was determined using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). The data were analyzed with ANOVA, followed by post hoc tests.

Results. CaCl2 and CaO decreased the setting time of MTA, and Ca(NO3)2 decreased the setting time of CEM cement. The incorporation of the salts increased the pH and calcium ion release from both cements, and hydroxyapatite deposits were noted to cover the surface of the samples (observed by SEM and confirmed by EDXA).

Conclusion. The incorporation of CaCl2 and CaO into MTA and Ca(NO3)2 into CEM cement decreased their setting time and increased their pH and calcium ion release.

Keywords: Calcium-enriched Mixture cement, calcium ion release, hydroxyapatite, MTA, setting time
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Submitted: 21 May 2019
Accepted: 07 Mar 2020
ePublished: 18 Mar 2020
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