J Dent Res Dent Clin Dent Prospects. 2021;15(2): 122-128.
doi: 10.34172/joddd.2021.021
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Clinical Dentistry

Original Article

Clinical and electromyographic evaluation of botulinum toxin type A in the treatment of gummy smile: A prospective clinical study

Payal Padmakar Mate 1, Kumar Nilesh 1* ORCID logo, Anand Joshi 1, Arun Panda 2

1 Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Dental Sciences, Krishna Institute of Medical Sciences, Maharashtra, India
2 Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Saraswati-Dhanwantari Dental College and Hospital, Maharashtra, India
*Corresponding author: Kumar Nilesh, Email: drkumarnilesh@yahoo.com


Background. The present study aimed to assess the effect of botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) for the management of gummy smile and evaluate its stability after administrating BTX-A clinically and using electromyography.

Methods. The investigators designed and implemented a prospective clinical study on 10 patients with a gummy smile. Patients with different types of gummy smile were injected with BTX-A in the levator muscles of the upper lip and were followed for six months. The effect of BTX-A was evaluated clinically and using electromyography preoperatively and after two weeks and three and six months. Statistical analyses were carried out using repeated measures ANOVA and post hoc Bonferroni tests for pairwise comparisons.

Results. The sample consisted of 10 patients with an anterior gummy smile (n=3), posterior gummy smile (n=2), mixed gummy smile (n=3), and asymmetrical gummy smile (n=2). There were significant differences (P<0.001) between the mean gingival display and compound muscle action potential at two-weeks and three-month follow-ups. The maximum result was obtained at the two-week interval. The mean gingival display and C-MAP values increased slightly at the three-month postoperative interval and gradually increased to the baseline values at six-month follow-up.

Conclusion. BTX-A is an effective, minimally invasive, and temporary treatment modality for gummy smiles. The electromyographic study is a convenient method for assessing changes in the upper lip muscle contractility to quantify the effect of BTX-A in the treatment of gummy smile.

Keywords: Botulinum toxin, Electromyography, Gummy smile
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Submitted: 09 Jul 2020
Accepted: 20 Dec 2020
ePublished: 05 May 2021
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