J Dent Res Dent Clin Dent Prospects. 2022;16(1): 29-34.
doi: 10.34172/joddd.2022.005

Scopus ID: 85132395989
  Abstract View: 147
  PDF Download: 81

Clinical Dentistry

Original Article

Quantifying the degree of white spot lesions on enamel caused by different commercial beverages using the Canary Caries Detection System: An in vitro study

John Michaelis 1 ORCID logo, Qingzhao Yu 2 ORCID logo, Tom Lallier 3 ORCID logo, Xiaoming Xu 4 ORCID logo, Richard W Ballard 5* ORCID logo, Paul Armbruster 5 ORCID logo

1 Orthodontist, Private practitioner, New Orleans, USA
2 Department of Biostatistics, LSUHSC School of Public Health, New Orleans, USA
3 Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, LSUHSC School of Dentistry, New Orleans, USA
4 Department of Prosthodontics, LSUHSC School of Dentistry, New Orleans, USA
5 Department of Orthodontics, LSUHSC School of Dentistry, New Orleans, USA
*Corresponding Author: Corresponding author: Richard W Ballard, Email: , Email: rball1@lsuhsc.edu


Background. The use of sports and energy drinks has drastically increased in the adolescent population. This population often is in orthodontic treatment, and the use of such drinks with poor oral hygiene promotes the development of white spot lesions (WSLs). Quantifying the degree of the lesion has been limited in the past. The hypothesis was that the Canary Caries Detection System could be used to quantify the degree of WSLs caused by different commercial beverages.

Methods. A total of 105 extracted human premolars were divided into seven groups (n=15). Each group was tested in one of six beverages or a phosphate-buffered solution (control). The teeth were exposed to its beverage three times a day for 15 minutes for 28 days. Canary numbers and ambient light and fluorescent photographs were collected at baseline (T0 ) and on days 14 (T1 ) and 28 (T2 ).

Results. The paired t test and one-way ANOVA found that T0 to T1 measurements were statistically significant (P<0.0015) and that T0 to T2 measurements were statistically significant (P<0.0001). Visually, the ambient light photographs and fluorescent photographs from T0 to T1 and T1 to T2 correlated with the increase in Canary numbers.

Conclusion. This in vitro study revealed a statistically significant increase in the T0 to T1 Canary numbers and a statistically significant increase from T0 to T2 Canary numbers for all the test beverages. Changes in Canary numbers indicated significant changes in mineral density (i.e., demineralization) and development of WSLs on enamel after exposure to sports and energy beverages.

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Submitted: 04 Aug 2021
Revision: 22 Dec 2021
Accepted: 08 Jan 2022
ePublished: 29 May 2022
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