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J Dent Res Dent Clin Dent Prospects. 2024;18(1): 72-76.
doi: 10.34172/joddd.40860
  Abstract View: 228
  PDF Download: 118

Public Health Forum

Original Article

Maternal periodontitis as a risk factor for preterm birth: A cross-sectional study

Syed Imran Gilani 1 ORCID logo, Aiman Niaz 1* ORCID logo, Saira Afridi 1

1 Department of Community & Preventive Dentistry, Sardar Begum Dental College, Peshawar, Pakistan
*Corresponding Author: Aiman Niaz, Email: aiman.niaz57@gmail.com

Abstract

Background. Preterm birth is a heterogeneous condition with multiple underlying causes, and periodontal diseases are one of them. Approximately 900000 preterm births are reported in Pakistan each year. Oral infections such as periodontitis during pregnancy are associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes such as low birth weight and preterm births. However, different studies have reported contradictory findings. We conducted a cross-sectional study to assess the association of preterm birth with oral infection in pregnancy.

Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional analytical study on 400 postpartum pregnant women in Khyber Teaching Hospital, Peshawar. Only women within the age bracket of 18‒40 years were recruited. Data were collected by an interview-based structured questionnaire. The extent and severity index were used to assess the periodontal health of participants. Frequency tables were generated, and the chi-squared test was used to determine associations between different categorical variables.

Results. The mean age of the participants was 25.8±4.9 years. Approximately 87.5% of the women had generalized periodontitis. Approximately 68% of mothers had moderate severity of periodontitis. The extent index showed no notable difference between the preterm and full-term birth groups. In contrast, the severity index displayed a statistically significant difference between the preterm and full-term birth groups.

Conclusion. The majority of women had generalized periodontitis. The severity index demonstrated a significant association between maternal periodontitis and preterm births. There was no association between the age of mothers and preterm births. Complications in pregnancy were not associated with preterm births.

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Submitted: 25 Nov 2023
Accepted: 03 Jan 2024
ePublished: 29 Mar 2024
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