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Original Research

Estimation and correlation of serum and salivary glucose, immunoglobulin A levels and salivary candidal carriage in diabetic and non diabetic patients

SHRUTHI S HEGDE* ORCID logo, ATUL P SATTUR, ANIL BAPU BARGALE, GAYATHRI S RAO, RAJEETH SESAPPA SHETTY, RAGHAVENDRA D KULKARNI, AJANTHA G S

Abstract

Background and Objectives: It has been noted that there is a correlation between diabetes mellitus (DM) and changes in the oral cavity. The present study was conducted to estimate, compare and correlate serum and salivary glucose, IgA levels and salivary candidal carriage in diabetics and non-diabetic individuals.

Materials and Methods: Total of 88 subjects were categorised into 3 groups: Group I (Controlled DM; n=27), Group II (Uncontrolled DM; n=32) and Group III (Non-diabetics; n=29). Serum and salivary glucose levels were assessed with glucose oxidase peroxidase method, Serum and salivary IgA by means of diagnostic kit, Candidal colonization by inoculating sample into sabouraud dextrose agar plate. The data was analysed by One way ANOVA test, Tukeys multiple posts hoc test and Pearson correlation coefficient.

Results: Serum IgA levels were significantly elevated in Group II compared to Group III and significant fall in salivary IgA levels from Group I & Group II. Candidal carriage were significantly higher in Group II compared to Group III. We found statistically significant correlation in serum glucose and salivary IgA levels in Group I. There was a positive correlation among the levels of serum/salivary glucose and serum/salivary IgA levels in Group II. In Group III, there was significant correlation between serum glucose and serum IgA.

Conclusion: Saliva could be a potentially non-invasive diagnostic tool to estimate glucose level. Evaluation of salivary constituents like IgA could be beneficial in the description and management of oral manifestations in diabetic individuals. The rise in levels of salivary glucose likely contributes to increased candidal carriage in turn susceptible to oral candidiasis.

Keywords: Candidal colony forming units, Diabetes mellitus, Immunoglobulin A, Saliva
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Submitted: 28 Sep 2018
Revision: 12 Jun 2020
Accepted: 12 Jun 2020
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